> Encyclopaedia of Paint
Here is an A to Z glossary of paint ingredients and painting
A type of synthetic polymer used as the binder for high-performance
water-based paints and sealants. Some acrylic polymers are used
in auto finishes, appliance coatings, etc.
The ability of a dry paint film or sealant to remain attached
to the surface. Adhesion is probably the single most important
property of a paint or sealant.
Container dispensing a fine spray of pressurised liquid paint etc.
Large group of unicellular non-flowering plants containing chlorophyll
but lacking true stems, roots, leaves and vascular tissue. (eg
A chemical agent, often included in exterior paints and sealants,
to prevent growth of algae on the surface of an applied coating.
An alkaline, or "basic," chemical substance such as
lime or caustic. Generally present in fresh cement, concrete,
plaster or certain household cleaning products.
A condition that occurs when the alkalinity in fresh masonry causes
the breakdown of a paint's binder, resulting in colour loss and
overall deterioration of the paint film. Most likely to occur
with vinyl acetate copolymer water-based and solvent-based paints
applied to masonry surfaces that are less than a year old.
A synthetic resin used in solvent-based paints. An alkyd resin
is made by reacting a drying oil with a hard, synthetic material.
A paint designed to minimise rust or corrosion when applied directly
Specially formulated paint for surfaces such as boat hulls and
piers. It discourages attachment and growth of marine plants and
Refers not only to the opacity of the paint film, but also to
how it hides, depending on its thickness and how smoothly it flows
out. Must take into account how the paint is applied (brush, roller,
An extruded foam rod that is typically placed in joints that are
deeper than 12 mm to fill in some of the space before the sealant
is applied. Foam backer rods come in a variety of diameters, ranging
from 3mm to 20mm.
1. A component of paint that "binds" the pigment particles
into a uniform, continuous paint film, and makes the paint adhere
to the surface. The nature and amount of binder helps determine
most of the paint's performance properties - washability, toughness,
adhesion, colour retention, and durability. 2. In sealant, a component
that "binds" the pigment particles into a homogeneous
compound and makes the sealant adhere to the surface. The main
performance properties of sealant - durability, adhesion, and
flexibility at low temperatures - are determined by the binder.
A biologically active paint and sealant additive designed to keep
bacteria from spoiling the paint or sealant during storage; or
to keep fungal / algal contamination from growing on the applied
Loss of colour, usually caused by exposure to sunlight.
The migration of material from the substrate, causing discoloration
of the paint.
The formation of dome-shaped, hollow projections of paint.
A thick, paint-like material used to smooth out very rough masonry
surfaces. It is generally brush-applied, then painted.
The capability of a coating to resist sticking to itself when
used on two surfaces that come into contact with each other, e.g.,
door with frame; window sash and sill.
The mixing together of the different cans of like paint to be
used on a job, to ensure uniformity, especially of colour.
To allow the passage of moisture vapour from the substrate through
the paint film.
BUILD (OR FILM BUILD):
The thickness that a paint tends to be applied in, when using
the normal application technique for that paint.
The formation of shiny areas on a painted surface, as a result
of rubbing or washing.
A mined material (chalk) that is used as an extender or filler
for paint and sealant.
Deterioration of the surface of an exterior paint upon weathering
into a faded, powdery substance. Chalking occurs when the paint's
binder is degraded by harsh environmental conditions. Chalk should
be removed prior to repainting.
Patterns of short, narrow breaks in the top layer of paint. Checking
occurs when the paint loses its elasticity.
The ability of a coating to resist damage by chemicals.
The lip around the opening of a paint can into which the lid is
A white, mined mineral used as an extender - mostly in interior
An organic solvent used in water-based paints that acts as a temporary
plasticiser, to aid in film formation. It helps the binder form
a continuous film when applied, particularly at the low end of
the application temperature range recommended for the coating.
A paint, stain, varnish, lacquer, or other finish that provides
a protective and/or decorative layer over a substrate.
The ability of a paint to keep its original colour and resist
fading. This term is generally applied to exterior paints.
A circular chart with wedge-shaped segments of different specific
colours. Used in colour decorating.
The ability to maintain colour and not fade excessively under
A concentrated liquid or dry colour that is added to a paint to
obtain a chosen colour.
Refers to any liquid with a flash point at or above 37°C.
Two colours directly opposite one another on the colour wheel.
The thickness or brushability of a paint.
Colours separated by at least three others on the colour wheel.
Any material used to prevent the oxidation (rusting) of metals.
May be a paint undercoat, an additive, a pigment, or a coating
applied to the surface.
Ability of a substance to resist deterioration due to a chemical
reaction with its environment. Coatings that do this usually contain
a corrosion inhibitor.
The spread rate of a paint or coating, usually expressed in m²/l.
With pigmented coatings, it can refer to applied hiding power.
The splitting of a dry paint or varnish film, usually a result
of aging or movement of the substrate. Different forms are hair-line
cracking, checking, grain cracking, or crocodiling.
A scaly pattern that appears on paint due to the inability of
the paint to bond to a glossy coating beneath it. It can also
be due to the application of a hard coating over a soft primer,
or (with solvent-based paint) because the wood was recoated before
the undercoat was dry.
Special colours that are made by adding colouriser to paint or
by intermixing paints of different colours. Permits the preparation
of a selected colour paint at the point of sale.
The painting of a surface adjacent to another surface that must
not be painted. For example, painting the frame of a window but
not the glass.
Having no sheen or gloss.
A liquid preparation used to remove the gloss of a painted surface,
to slightly roughen or give "tooth" to the substrate.
This lends improved adhesion to the coating being applied.
Solvent or compounded material used for removing oils, fats, or
grease from a substrate.
The temperature at which water vapour in the air begins to condense.
A liquid that is included in a coating, or can be added primarily
to reduce its viscosity. A diluent is not necessarily a solvent
for the binder.
Drying stage of a coating at which airborne dust particles will
not adhere to it.
Drying stage of a coating at which it is not sticky or tacky to
DRY TO RECOAT:
Drying stage of a coating at which another coat of paint can be
applied without damaging the previous coat.
DRY TO SAND:
Drying stage of a sandable coating at which it can be sanded without
the excess sticking to or clogging the sandpaper.
DRY TO TOUCH:
Drying stage of a coating at which it has hardened enough that
it may be touched lightly without any of it adhering to the finger.
The interval between the application of a coating and when it
is ready for service.
The degree to which a coating or sealant can withstand the destructive
effects of the environment to which it is exposed. The term also
refers to interior applications, including the ability to withstand
scrubbing, abrasion, etc.
EASE OF APPLICATION:
Characteristics of a paint or sealant that facilitate its application,
e.g., spatter resistance, lapping properties, and open time.
Whitish powder (salt deposits) that sometimes appears on masonry
surfaces; it is carried to the surface by moisture.
An interior mid-sheen paint that has silk-like appearance. Its
gloss level is between matt and satin.
The ability of paint or sealant to expand and contract with the
substrate without suffering damage or changes in its appearance.
Expansion and contraction are usually caused by temperature and
A mixture (usually milky-white) in which one liquid is dispersed
(but not dissolved) in another. A water-based paint or sealant
binder is often referred to as an emulsion, even though it is
a dispersion of solid polymer particles in a liquid (water).
Technically, an enamel is a coloured varnish, or high gloss paint.
The term is used for high quality, dirt-resistant paints (generally
for interior use) that may have a sheen level from satin to glossy.
These coatings are used for more demanding applications as in
kitchens, bathrooms, etc.
A low-hiding, inexpensive pigment that fills out and extends the
high-hiding and coloured pigments' capabilities, provides bulk
to the paint, and can positively or negatively have an impact
on many properties. Some common extenders are clay, calcium carbonate,
Lightening of the paint's colour, usually caused by exposure to
light, heat or the weather.
A process used to blend a small area into its surroundings after
spot-priming, applying a filler, or scraping off an area of old
A metal that contains iron; most ferrous metals are subject to
A powder mixed with water or a ready-mix compound that is primarily
used to fill large cracks in walls. It dries hard and can be sanded
and painted, but does not tolerate much movement in the substrate.
The formation of a continuous dry film by a binder, either pigmented
or not. In an emulsion paint this process is the result of the
water evaporating and the subsequent fusion of the binder particles.
The detachment of pieces of paint from the substrate, caused by
a loss of adhesion and/or elasticity.
The ability of a substance to ignite, having a flash point under
Uneven gloss or colour resulting from an unsealed substrate or
excessively high or low temperatures during drying.
The lowest temperature at which the vapours of a liquid can catch
Degree to which a coating or sealant, after drying, is able to
conform to the movement of its substrate without damage.
The ability of a coating to even out upon application, so that
brush and roller marks are not visible.
The ability of a paint or sealant to resist fungal growth on its
A chemical agent used in coatings and sealants that discourages
fungal growth on the surface of an applied coating.
A black, grey or brown fungus that can grow on the surface of
a paint or sealant. It forms most often on areas that tend to
be damp and receive little or no sunlight.
A ferrous metal that is covered with zinc to protect it from rusting.
Thin topcoat of transparent paint used to modify the tone of an
A sealant, or putty that is used to seal a glass pane into its
The shininess or reflectiveness of a coating. Matt paints have
low gloss; high gloss paints have very noticeable gloss.
The ability of a coating to maintain its gloss - pertains especially
to satin and gloss exterior coatings.
The direction, size, arrangement or appearance of the fibres in
wood or veneer.
Cracking of a coating, parallel to the grain of the wood substance.
The swelling and standing up of short, broken fibres of wood caused
by absorption of a liquid. Water is particularly inclined to cause
Natural crystalline calcium sulphate used as an extender pigment
in paint, and in the manufacture of gypsum wallboard and plaster
A generic term for a smooth or textured grainless panel manufactured
primarily from compressed wood fibres.
The degree of pressure a material will withstand without becoming
deformed or scratched.
Trees that have broad leaves (in contrast to conifer or softwoods).
The term has no reference to the actual hardness of the wood.
Examples are: oak, maple, ash, beech and walnut.
The ability of paint or stain to obscure the surface over which
it has been applied. Hiding power is provided by the paint's pigment,
and is affected by how thickly the paint tends to apply, and how
well brush marks flow out.
HOLLOW SPHERE POLYMERIC PIGMENT:
A white pigment used in water-based paints to provide opacity.
A polymeric shell containing either water or air which provides
The basis of a colour, e.g., whether it is a red or green. Lighter
or darker variations are still the same hue. Thus, a light red
and a deep red are of the same hue.
Chemically inactive; resistant to corrosion.
Matter other than that of animal or vegetable origin. For example,
minerals and simple salts are inorganic materials.
The inability to be dissolved.
A layer of paint that is "sandwiched" between two others.
Also refers to something occurring between coats, as in "intercoat
The gap or space created when two building materials come together,
such as where two pieces of moulding join or where the bathtub
and bathroom wall meet.
Used as a sealer and clear finish for floors, for sealing knots,
also seen in solvent-based primers.
Coating based on synthetic thermoplastic film-forming material
that is dissolved in organic solvent. Dries by solvent evaporation.
Area where a coat of paint or other coating extends over an adjacent
fresh coat. The painter's objective is to make this juncture without
visible lap marks.
A milky-white, fine dispersion of a solid resin in an aqueous
medium. Also used to describe water-thinned paints, the principal
vehicle of which is latex.
Water-based paint made with a synthetic binder (latex), such as
acrylic, vinyl acetate copolymer, or styrene acrylic latex.
A soft, malleable heavy metal. In the past, compounds of lead
were used as a white pigment, and were used in primers to prevent
LEVELLING (OR FLOW AND LEVELLING):
The ability of a coating to form a smooth film without brush marks.
LIGHT REFLECTANCE VALUE (LRV):
The amount of light reflected from a painted surface.
Drying oil obtained from flaxseed. It is darker and slower drying
than most other drying oils. Once widely used in coatings, it
now has limited use in solvent-based house paint and oil wood
LIQUID SANDER, LIQUID SANDPAPER:
Liquid chemical used to degloss a painted surface in order to
improve adhesion of an applied coating.
A metric unit of volume. 4.546 litres = 1 imperial gallon.
A decorative painting technique that imitates the colour and figure
Paints and varnishes specifically formulated to withstand saltwater
immersion and exposure to marine atmosphere.
Mineral-based building material such as cement, mortar, stone,
brick, and stucco.
A paint with little or no sheen. Used mostly on interior walls
and ceilings, and exterior wall areas.
MEDIUM DENSITY FIBREBOARD:
Sheets of compressed wood fibres. Often used for structural items
A hydrocarbon solvent distilled from petroleum; paint thinner
may be mostly or all mineral spirits.
The ability of a coating to resist swelling, blistering or other
damage caused by moisture.
Material Safety Data Sheet. An informational document provided
by the manufacturer regarding the safety and handling procedures
and precautions for materials used in the workplace.
A paint failure that looks like cracked mud. It occurs when a
coating is applied too thickly, such as with heavy application
NAIL HEAD RUSTING:
The rusting of the exposed heads of iron nails. It can show through
and discolour the coating covering it. Can occur if bright nails,
rather than galvanised, are used outdoors.
The fibres on a paint roller cover.
A petroleum distillate solvent used mainly by professional painters
to thin solvent-based coatings and to clean up.
White, cream, light beige and grey - colours that generally go
well with all other colours.
The solid portion of a coating consisting of pigment and binder;
it is the portion of the coating left on the surface after it
Paints made with a drying oil, such as linseed, soya or tung oil,
as the vehicle and binder, and mineral spirits or paint thinner
as the thinning agent. They are not common today; but generally
dry very hard, but take longer to dry than emulsion paints and
require more time to recoat.
The ability to keep light from passing through. A paint with a
high opacity will hide the substrate well.
Exterior stain that obscures the natural colour and grain of wood,
but still allows the texture to show through. Generally, one coat
is applied to bare wood.
Refers to a substance derived from living matter; the molecular
structure contains carbon.
A chemical reaction with oxygen. For example, the drying of oils
in oil-based paint, or the rusting of iron or steel.
An opaque coating generally made with a binder, liquids, additives,
and pigments. Applied in liquid form, it dries to form a continuous
film that protects and improves the appearance of the substrate.
The detachment of paint from the surface in ribbons or sheets.
Like flaking, it is the result of loss of adhesion and film integrity.
Peeling can be intercoat, or down to the substrate.
A coating that is absorbed into the substrate, rather than forming
a film on its surface.
Capable of allowing something (such as water vapour) to pass through
Liquid hydrocarbon solvents (such as mineral spirits) that are
isolated or made from petroleum.
A powdery substance that is one of the basic components of a paint
or sealant. It provides whiteness or colour, hiding power, and
A plastic-like material produced from chemical "monomers"
which in turn have been produced from alcohols and petrochemicals.
Certain polymers are used as water-based paint and sealant binders.
The binder's polymer particles are small and carried in water.
The binder polymer particles and water mixture is known as an
emulsion or as "latex."
A clear coating that is based on a modified alkyd resin.
POLYVINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER:
A binder most widely used in interior emulsion paints.
A substance used to prevent the growth of microorganisms in or
on an organic base. An example is an ingredient in water-based
paint used to prevent spoilage.
Colours that cannot be produced by mixing any two other colours.
They are: red, yellow, and blue.
The first complete coat of paint applied in a painting system.
Many primers are designed to provide adequate adhesion between
the surface and subsequent topcoats. Most primers contain some
pigment, some lend uniformity to the topcoat, some inhibit corrosion
of the substrate, and some stop the discoloration of the topcoat.
A priming system that minimises or prevents the penetration of
the topcoat into the substrate.
The capability of a coating to not retain pressed-in markings
from an object placed on it.
Pigment Volume Concentration. The ratio of the volume of pigment
to the volume of total non-volatile material (i.e. pigment and
binder) present in a paint. The figure is usually expressed as
a percentage. Higher percentage figures (e.g., 40% - 75%) are
associated with matt paints; and lower figures (e.g., 10% - 25%)
with gloss and satin paints. (PVC has a second meaning: polyvinyl
chloride, the major component of vinyl plastic.)
Interval required between the application of successive coats
of paint. This time period is usually listed on the label.
The ratio of the light that radiates onto a surface to the amount
that is reflected back.
Two colours that are next to each other on the colour wheel.
A highly extended paste used to make a continuous seam between
pieces of prefinished plasterboard; also used to repair cracks,
holes and other defects. It is sanded smooth before painting.
A natural or synthetic material utilised as the binder for a paint
or sealant. Term used generally for solvent-based or water-based
binders, as "alkyd resin" or "acrylic resin."
The reddish, brittle oxide formed on iron or its alloys. It is
a result of exposure to air and humidity or chemicals.
Narrow (or wide curtain-like) downward movement of a paint or
varnish film; may be caused by the application of too much coating,
the collection of excess quantities of paint at irregularities
in the surface (cracks, holes, etc.), or excessive material continuing
to flow after the surrounding surface has set.
Rough finish plaster wall, or a paint that has been texturised
Especially hard first coat that can seal and fill, but will not
obscure, the grain of the wood. The surface is then sanded before
subsequent coats are applied.
A chemical decomposition of a paint's binder by alkali and moisture
from a substrate (e.g., new concrete or fresh plaster). Saponified
paint may deteriorate, lose its adhesion, and become discoloured.
A paint with a gloss level between high gloss and eggshell/silk.
The ability of a coating to resist wearing away or changing its
original appearance when rubbed with a brush, sponge, or cloth
and an abrasive soap.
A liquid coat that seals wood, plaster, etc., and prevents the
surface from absorbing paint or varnish. Sealers may be transparent,
and can act as primers. Some sealers are designed to be left uncoated.
Colours formed by mixing together two primary colours. They are:
orange, green, and purple.
Certain exterior paints that are designed to chalk relatively
quickly to maintain a white, clean appearance.
Stain that alters the natural colour of the wood, yet allows the
grain and texture to show through. The term is generally applied
to exterior products, but technically applies also to interior
stains used for trim, furniture and floors.
The sinking of pigments or other solid matter in a paint on standing
in a container, with the subsequent accumulation on the bottom
of the container.
A shade is created when black is added to a colour. It is a darker
variant of a colour.
A moderately low degree of gloss; gloss with poor distinctness-of-image
reflectance. Characteristic where a coating appears to be matt
when viewed near to the perpendicular, but appears to be glossy
when viewed from a low or grazing angle.
A silicone-like substance that is added to sealants to improve
their adhesion to glass and metal surfaces under wet conditions.
A pigment made from quartz sand that has been crushed or ground.
A reinforcing filler for paints; it imparts burnish resistance,
sheen uniformity and good matting.
Compound used in the manufacture of binders that is characterised
by outstanding heat resistance, high water repellency, and chemical
resistance. A key ingredient in some sealants, and in the formulation
of many effective defoamers for water-based paints.
SILICONISED ACRYLIC SEALANT:
Similar to an acrylic sealant, except it has a small amount of
silane added to it, which enhances adhesion to glass and some
metals under wet conditions.
Utilisation of different values of a single colour in a decorating
scheme. Also called monochromatic.
A liquid composition that prevents excessive absorption of paint
or wallpaper adhesive into plaster, wallboard, or a similar porous
The film that forms on the surface of a stored paint or sealant.
It is caused by exposure to air.
The group of trees (fir, pine, spruce) characterised by its needles
and being evergreen. The term does not refer to the hardness of
Non-volatile matter in the composition of a coating or a sealant,
i.e. the ingredients in a coating that, after drying, constitute
the dry film. Solids are composed mostly of pigment and binder.
The ability of a material to be dissolved in a liquid. For example,
sugar is soluble in water.
A usually volatile liquid in which a paint's film-forming particles
are dissolved or dispersed.
Droplets of paint that spin or mist off the roller as paint is
SPONGE PAINTING (SPONGING):
Interior painting technique in which natural sea sponges are used
to apply or partially remove a "glaze coat" of paint.
To apply a primer to those areas where paint has been removed
or stripped to the original surface.
Method of application in which the paint is broken up into a fine
mist and directed to the surface under pressure. Specific types
of spray equipment are: aerosol, airless, and air assisted.
The volume of a coating that can cover a given area. The recommended
spread rate is usually indicated on the paint can. Spread rate
depends on application method and technique, porosity of the substrate,
etc., as well as on the nature of the particular coating.
A partly transparent coating that can colour wood without obscuring
the grain and/or the texture. Also refers to materials that soil
the surface of a coating.
When tannin found in certain types of wood (such as cedar or redwood)
migrates through the coating, causing discoloration. Also, discoloration
from a contaminant on the substrate.
The ability of a coating to resist soiling.
A method of applying a design by brushing or sponging paint through
a cutout overlay placed on the surface.
Removing old paint, varnish, etc., by using paint remover, sandpaper,
heat gun, or scraping tools. Also, the removal of wallpaper.
A synthetic latex similar to synthetic rubber. Used in certain
types of water-based paint.
Any surface to which a coating or sealant is applied.
Also called water-spotting and weeping. It is often a tan-coloured,
glossy residue that can form on the surface when exterior water-based
paint is applied under conditions that are cool and damp, that
result in slow dry of the paint. May not readily wash off, but
generally will weather off within a month's time.
Man-made, rather than occurring naturally.
A fabric impregnated with a tacky substance that is used to remove
dust from a surface after sanding or rubbing down, and prior to
further painting. It should be stored in an airtight container
to preserve its tackiness.
The stage in the paint's drying process at which the film is sticky
when lightly touched.
Magnesium silicate; a white extender pigment used in paint. The
base for talcum powder.
A liquid that, along with the binder, forms the paint's vehicle.
The thinner evaporates after the paint is applied. Water is the
thinner used in water-based paint, while turpentine, mineral spirits
and denatured alcohol are thinners associated with different solvent-based
coatings; the liquid used to thin the coating.
A tint is created when white is added to a colour. Also, to add
colouriser to a liquid paint.
TITANIUM DIOXIDE (TIO2):
An expensive, high opacity, bright white pigment that is used
as a prime pigment in paints, both water- and solvent-based.
An aromatic solvent used in the manufacture of some paints and
A tone is created when grey is added to a colour.
In a dry paint film, a fine texture imparted either by a proportion
of relatively coarse or abrasive pigment, or by the abrasives
used in sanding; this texture improves the burnish properties
and also provides a good base for the adhesion of a subsequent
coat of paint.
The coating intended to be the last coat applied in a coating
system. Usually applied over a primer, undercoat.
Application of paint on small areas of painted surfaces to repair
misses, mars, scratches and places where the coating has deteriorated,
in order to restore the finish.
Harmful or poisonous.
Having the property of allowing light to permeate without diffusion
or scattering; clear.
TRIADIC COLOUR SCHEME:
A colour scheme using three colours that are equidistant on the
TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE (TSP):
A cleaning compound based on an alkaline material. Because it
contains phosphate, its use may be controlled in certain geographical
A fast-drying oil obtained from the nut of the tung tree; also
known as chinawood oil. Generally used in fine wood finishing.
A colourless, volatile oil distilled from pine. Used as a thinner
and cleaning solvent in the past, it has since been replaced by
mineral spirits or white spirits.
A substance used in some exterior coating that absorbs UV radiation,
and reduces or delays damaging UV effects from sunshine to the
coating or substrate.
ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION (UV):
The portion of the radiant energy of the sun's spectrum that causes
damage to coatings and sealants and to the surface of unprotected
The ability of a coating or sealant to remain undamaged
when subjected to UV radiation, as from direct sunlight.
A coating, generally pigmented, that provides improved adhesion
and/or maximised gloss and uniformity of a top coat when used
on bare wood.
A subtle or subdued colour of limited intensity that lends character
to the dominant colour of a coating.
A type of binder used in coatings. Characterised by excellent
flexibility and chemical resistance.
An alkyd that has been chemically modified for improved flexibility
and chemical resistance. A binder used in "polyurethane"
The lightness or darkness of a colour, i.e. light blue, medium
blue and dark blue have different values.
A liquid composition that is converted to a transparent solid
film after being applied in a thin layer.
A varnish that has a transparent colour added. It usually has
less penetrating power than a true stain.
Oil obtained from the seeds or nuts of vegetable growth.
The liquid portion of paint, in which the pigment is dispersed.
The vehicle is composed of thinner and binder.
The fluid thickness of a coating.
Volatile Organic Compound. Any carbon compound that evaporates
under standard test conditions. Some authorities limit the amount
of volatile organic compounds permitted in paint because of concerns
about environmental and health effects.
Easily evaporated. The easily evaporated components of any coating
The volume of the solid components (pigment plus binder) of a
paint or sealant, divided by its total volume, expressed as a
percentage. High volume solids provide a thicker dry film, resulting
in improved hiding and high durability.
Ease with which washing will remove dirt from the surface of the
paint without causing damage.
Cleaning equipment that uses water under high pressure.
Exterior clear finishes that are specially formulated to cause
water to bead up on the surface and minimise penetration of water
into the substrate.
Paint made with acrylic, vinyl acetate copolymer or other latex
resin types, and thinned with water. It dries more quickly than
solvent-based paint, has relatively low odour, some water vapour
permeability, and cleans up easily. The liquid component is predominantly
Ability to be diluted with water or a water/cosolvent mixture.
A method of improving the adhesion to a metal substrate by allowing
it to weather naturally before painting.
The ability of a coating or sealant to withstand the effects of
wind, rain, sun and temperature fluctuation, and retain its appearance
The ability of dry paint or sealant to adhere to the surface in
spite of wet conditions. This is of particular importance for
exterior paints and sealants.
WET EDGE RETENTION:
The length of time a newly applied coating can stand, then be
brushed or rolled again, without showing lap marks.
WET FILM THICKNESS:
Thickness of a liquid film immediately after application, before
it begins to dry.
Cleaning a surface with a wire brush, or wire power brush.
Heavily pigmented product used to fill the grain of wood before
undercoats or finishes are applied. Used on open-grain hardwoods
such as oak, ash, walnut and chestnut. Used for furniture and